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Рефераты по финансам (всего в разделе: 156)

  1. A Country Report and Profile - Republic of Uzbekistan

    A Country Report and Profile Presented By: Alfiya G Mirzagalamova amirz@indiana.edu Jason C Holman jholman@indinanaedu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com The concept of transition of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the market economy consists of five principles formulated by its President Islam Karimov: 1 Economy should have priority over politics Economic reforms should not follow the lead of political processes. 2 The State is the main reformer The representatives of legally elected authorities have to determine priorities and pursue balanced policy of no social shocks. 3 Along with economic reforms it is necessary to create a system of social protection of the Republic population especially of most vulnerable groups. 4 Superiority of Law and Constitution. 5 Stage by stage movement to the market economy The transition to next stage only after the current stage targets have been met. I Political and Economic Background Politics To understand the politics of Uzbekistan it is i...
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  2. Country Study, Hungary

    Country Study, Hungary Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com Introduction to HungaryТs political history Hungary has had a long and volatile history of political and economic change Hungary as a organized society dates back before 1000 AD and has been ruled by different monarchies and foreign regimes every since This brief introduction will outline HungaryТs political and economic history starting with HungaryТs УPost-1945 World War II eraФ. During WWII Hungary fell under German control until the end of the war After GermanyТs defeat in WWII, a commission was established among allied forces (American, Soviet, and British) in which had ultimate sovereignty over the country However, since the leader of the commission was a member of StalinТs inner circle, the Soviets exercised absolute control.(Wash Post., 1)The Government that was provisionally instituted in Hungary after WWII was shortly dissolved and the Hungarian Communist Party replaced them in the 1945 elections. The (HCP)Soc...
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  3. Country Study, KAZAKHSTAN

    KAZAKHSTAN Country Study Jason Pugh jpugh@indiana.edu Cory Winchell cwinchel@indiana.edu Marina Yakolina myakol@indiana.edu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com An Economic Overview Major changes are taking place in Kazakhstanэs fiscal system The breakdown of past revenue sharing procedures, under the centrally planned budgetary system require significant adjustments to the entire process The banking scheme is currently being changed The governmental accounting system is undergoing a complete overhaul (Am Embassy Rpt., April 1996) Currency stability continues to plague the country, and inflation remains a key concern Investment is weak, and budgetary process reforms are stagnant Discretionary government expenditures have fluctuated, while mandatory expenditures are expanding rapidly. These are just some of the problems that plague Kazakhstanэs government A 1995 growth prospects index rated Kazakhstan last among other FSU countries (Economic Overview of Kazakhstan, June 1996...
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  4. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

    Country Study Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race Submitted by Michael Milton Peter mpeter@indiana.edu Robert Scott Taylor staylor@indiana.edu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com Government Finance in Transition Economies Professor John Mikesell Fall 1996 The World Development Report: From Plan to Market (WDR) argues that with consistent and sustained reforms, transition countries can achieve successful long-term economic growth, but also warns that many challenges and risks among them long-term stagnation and rising poverty still lie ahead for some countries. -World Bank News, June 27,1996- Introduction Five years ago a small republic of the former Yugoslavia, started on its path of transition from an eastern block socialist government with a planned economy to a democratic government with a free market economy Fortunately, the rocky road, described by the World Bank News in the quote above, has not been long for Slovenia Although Slovenia was the most ...
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  5. Public Finance Perspective - Latvia

    Public Finance Perspective Latvia Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com The Latvian people have lived in the Baltic-shore territory for more than 4,000 years, with the Latvian language being one of the oldest living languages of Europe "Latvia"s location at an East-West crossroads, and her ice-free ports on the Baltic Sea, have made her an inviting target for expansional powers.".(EIU, 1995) Over the centuries, Latvia has been occupied by the Teotonic knights of Germany, the knights of Sweden and Poland, and the tsars of Russia World War I and the fall of the Russian tsars provided an opportunity for numerous Russian colonies to break away Only Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia gained and maintained independence on November 18, 1918, by signing a treaty with the new Soviet Russian government Latvia quickly began to develop a successful economy and joined the League of Nations in 1922. In 1940, Stalin presented Latvia with an ultimatum, admit Soviet troops or face annihilation During...
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  6. Redesigning the Dragon

    Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China Duncan Marsh dmarsh@indiana.edu Anna Pawul apawul@indiana.edu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com V550, Government Finance in the Transitional Economies 21 November, 1996 In 1978, the PeopleТs Republic of China (PRC) embarked on the enormous undertaking of opening its doors to the outside world Until this point in time, the PRC had relied on a centralized economic system much like that of the former Soviet Union However, the PRCТs situation differed with the former Soviet Union in three substantial ways 1) although reforms followed the Cultural Revolution (which did exact its toll on the Chinese economy) there was an absence of severe macroeconomic crises when reforms were begun 2) agricultural infrastructure was good, although the incentives were poor and 3) China had a strong presence of overseas Chinese and Hong Kong that influence its economic development and over the years supplied capital and hum...
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    Russian Federation Country Study A Public Finance Perspective Ryan Grace rgrace@indiana.edu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com David Lamp dlamp@indinana.edu Political Background The separation of powers which existed under the Soviet constitution was essentially a myth A Russian accurately characterized the relationships that existed between party, state and society as,.The state absorbed the society, the Party absorbed the state, and the Party appartchiks, the nomenclature under the totalitarian leadership of the Secretary-General absorbed the Party." Both legislative and judicial branches served as rubber stamps" to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet which unlike the Supreme Soviet itself was constantly in session The development of political reform in the late 1980s weakened the party"s control over the reigns of power The devolution of power from the Presidium occurred through the creation of the office of the President which received the executive powers while the leg...
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  8. Transitional Success: USSR to EU

    The Czech Republic Transitional Success: USSR to EU Public finance policy issues during the political economic transition from centrally planned socialist economics to free market democratic capitalism. V550 Dr Mikesell November 20, 1996 Rick Ferguson rfergus@indiana.edu Eric Martin emartin@indiana.edu Dmitri Maslitchenko dmitri@mailroom.com Table of Contents I Introduction II Political Summary: Restructuring for Transition III Transition to Market Economy: 1990 1991 IV Problems of Transitional Monetary Policy and the Financial Sector: An Overview V Macro Economic Stability: 1993 present VI Monetary Policy: 1993 VII Intergovernmental Financial Relations VIII Budgetary Overview: 1993 present IX Tax Reform X Current Political Economic Considerations: 1996 XI.The EU and NATO XII Conclusions XIII References Introduction In 1989, after nearly 40 years of Soviet control, Czechoslovakia once again became an independent nation, the Czech and Slovak Federalist Republic T...
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  9. Анализ взаимосвязи показателей баланса народного хозяйства и системы национальных счетов

    Дефляторы валового внутреннего продукта(в % к соответствующему периоду предыдущего года) I квартал II квартал III квартал IV квартал Год 1996 год 183,5 149,1 136,0 127,9 144,1 1997 год 119,5 118,4 116,1 105,6 114,5 1998 год 106,0 107,3 112,1 138,3 116,2 1999 год 158,0 171,6 175,3 152,4 164,6 2000 год 154,6 136,4 135,6 128,7 137,1 Использование ВВП (в текущих рыночных ценах)2000 год Млрд.рублей В % к итогу I квартал II квартал III квартал IV квартал Год I квартал II квартал III квартал IV квартал Год Валовой внутренний продукт 1461,4 1641,9 2004,0 1956,1 7063,4 100 100 100 100 100 в том числе: расходы на конечное потребление 951,7 1063,5 1162,0 1329,0 4506,2 63,6 62,5 56,8 67,0 62,5 домашних хозяйств 719,5 765,4 864,9 974,7 3324,5 48,1 45,0 42,3 49,2 46,1 государственных учреждений 205,3 260,4 261,1 307,8 1034,6 13,7 15,3 12,7 15,5 14,4 некоммерческих организаций 26,9 37,7 36,0 46,5 147,1 1,8 2,2 1,8 2,3 2,0 валовое накопление 177,9 277,9 531,0 258,7 1245,5 12,0 16,5 26,0 13...
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